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1♣ opener by North with the intent of rebidding 2NT to show 17-18 balanced.
South responds 1♥
West will bid 2♠ showing 6 ♠ s and if playing a weak jump overcall 5-9. If playing an intermediate jump overcall 10-14 you can upgrade the hand due to the 6/4 shape. Often said if 6-4 bridge more. This is a great pre-emptive bid.
North has a good stop so can bid 2NT to show values and shape.
East has a decision whether to support partner with 3♠ s by bidding to the level of total tricks.
In bridge, the Law of Total Tricks (or simply "The Law") is a hand evaluation method for competitive auctions. Technically stated, the total number of cards in each partnership's longest suit is equal to the number of "total tricks" that either side can win in a suit contract. To know more
Or pass as he has a good lead against 2NT that is likely to go off.
The bidding is straight forward.
1♥ raised to 3♥ showing 10-12 HCPs and 4+ card support and inviting game that is accepted by West.
The play is more difficult.
After a ♦ lead which is fairly safe from North, the natural thing is to take the finesse losing to the K♦ singleton and then a ♠ to the K will set up a trump trick for one off.
If you escape this you need to choose whether to trump the losing ♣ and ♠ . This is the priority as even with the likely split of ♥ s being 3/1 being more likley than 2/2 you will only be able to trump 1 of your losers.
South opens 1♥
North has a close choice between bidding 1NT which is probably preferred with the 4333 shape and values in all suits, even if only 10s!
Some may choose to bid 2♥ s, but with the flat shape you will be unlikely to trump anything if partner has only 4♥ s
East shows 6+♥ s and 16+ HCPs which North can raise to 4♥ s.
The sequence shown is the pure solution.
North does not have enough for a weak 2 with a lack of controls (A/Ks), values in trump suit and a Q which is not often useful.
West does not have enough for a 2♦ overcall.
North cannot respond even 1NT with a 4 count or 2♥ s which would show more.
East is in what is called the balancing position (To know more)
East should try to find a bid, even with a weakish hand. East has already shown a maximum of 11 HCPs with the pass.
However the shape here is wrong and if you double partner will bid 2♦ s 9 out of 10 times. So pass!
Over 1NT by south North has an easy transfer to 2♥ by bidding 2♦ .
After passes to East in the balancing seat East will look hard for a bid, but the shape is wrong to double so has to pass.
South can open with a 3♣ pre-empt.
East cannot double with a ♠ shortage, statistical odds would probably find partner bidding ♠ s!
South can overcall 3♠ s
West can join in and show his ♠ stop. A bit weak, but when people are bidding long suits it is often easier to play as you know where 6 or 7 cards out of the 13 are.
Whilst 3NT should go down, the leads to do so the J♥ and A♣ are not sensible leads. ♥ s have been bid by East and leading an Ace is not normally a great lead. However the other 11 leads will put the contract one down.
North opens with 1♦ having the option of rebidding 1NT showing 15-16 balanced or reversing into 2♥ s showing 5+♦ s and 4+♥ s.
The 1♠ bid reduces the probability of south having 4♥ s so north rebids 1NT.
South can add his 18 HCPs to Norths 15-16, so 33-34 points in total so easy to bid 6NT.
A good competitive board.
Sometimes over 1♦ east can double with a 5431 hand, however majors are more important so it is easy to overcall 1♠ and if opportunity occurs to bid ♥ s to show the shape.
4♦ is a good sacrifice, but it is difficult to bid, even at this vulnerability.
North bids the 4 card ♥ suit with the plan to rebid NT at the lowest level to show 15-16 HCPs. Which North does over souths 2♦ s.
With souths 16HCPs, south can see 31 or 32 HCPs.
The 4NT is an invitation to north to bid 6NT if maximum or pass if minimum. It is often used over 1/nt or 2/nt opening bids and is known as 4NT quantitative (see this EBU article) .
With a maximum north bids 6NT