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Standard 1NT opener.
East is probably best doubling for penalties with 15-18 HCPs. South now needs to escape. The most popular defence is known as wriggle - Re-double for ♣ s and use transfers for other suits.
West can wait to see what East will do after the transfer. When East bids 3Cs West can see game values and has probably a ♥ stop so bids 3NTs.
To see what contracts can be made - click on the "play it again" tab, then choose "Bridge Solver Online" and then click analyse.
West opens 1NT with balanced 12-14.
After 2 passes South could bid 2♥ s or a double would be for penalties and after two passes East would try to escape to ♣ s then South could bid ♥ s with a similar result. This works here as North can invite to game which South can go to game with his 5 loser hand. The use of losing tricks is a useful tool.
East can open a weak 2♦ .
South has difficult decision whether to pass or overcall 2♥ The vulnerability might suggest a pass. However competing is the best decision here.
West should pass as no game values and East is unlikely to have 4♠ s.
North has a strong support for a passed hand so should probably bid an unassuming cue bid with 3♦ , 3♥ would be a weaker bid. South being minimum or subminimum will pass this.
After 3 passes East can open 1♦ .
As South has passed he could overcall 1♥ .
West can bid 3♦ as a weak supporting hand. With a strong hand West could bid 2♥ to show good hand with ♦ s.
North may have a free bid to show ♥ s and a reasonable hand.
The difficult decision for East is whether to bid 5♦ s or double 3♥ s for penalties.
West cannot bid over the 1♥ opener by South.
North with a 4333 hand bids 1NT.
East has a borderline 2♦ overcall which is ok NV.
As North may often have ♣ s for his NT bid so 3♣ s is probably better than 2♥ s.
After 1♦ by South, West can overcall with 1♠ (some might consider a weak 2♠ as a reasonable 5 card suit).
North is probably best to pass.
East can bid 2♦ as a good (for a passed hand) raise in ♠ s.
West has a weak overcall so converts to 2♠ s.
South opens 1♣ .
North cannot double as they cannot support ♥ s so has to pass.
East bids 1♦
West can bid 1♠ which is not a reverse.
East can see game, but if West is strong there may be a slam. Best is 2♥ which is fourth suit forcing. If West can bid ♦ s there may be a slam.
However West bids 2NT to show a ♥ stop.
East raised to 3NT
Many possible contracts.
East opens with 1♣.
South overcalls 1♠
West can double to show 8+ HCPs and support for other suits.
North can make it difficult for East by bidding 2♠ s that is weak. To show a stronger hand with support he could bid 2♣ s.
East with support for other suits, but without 4♥ s can double showing ♣ ♦ and probably 3s♥ without a ♠ stop.
West then has to choose between 3♣ or 3♥ s.
East opens 1♣
West should bid 1♠ which is far more important than 1♦ . If an opportunity ♦ s can be bid later.
East bids 1NT showing balanced 15-16 HCPs.
West can then bid a quantitative 4NTs which says bid 6NT if you are maximum or have a good source of tricks.
East has a good hand and can bid 6NT
A difficult hand to bid due to the voids.
North bids 1♦
South bids 1♥
North bids 1♠
Now how can South explore a slam?
Normal 4NT Roman Keycard will not tell you which of the 5 Aces North has?
As South can see a minimum 30 HCPs and has control of ♦ ♣ ♥ and 4 card support, the gamble of 6♠ s is reasonable.