Matchpoint — a unit of scoring awarded to a contestant as a result of comparison with one or more other scores. See Law 78A.
LAW 19 - DOUBLES AND REDOUBLES
1. A player may double only the last preceding bid. That bid must have been made by an opponent; calls other than pass must not have intervened.
2. In doubling, a player should not state the number of odd tricks or the denomination. The only correct form is the single word “Double”.
3. If a player, in doubling, incorrectly states the bid, or the number of odd tricks or the denomination, he is deemed to have doubled the bid as it was made. (Law 16 — Unauthorized Information — may apply.)
1. A player may redouble only the last preceding double. That double must have been made by an opponent; calls other than pass must not have intervened.
2. In redoubling, a player should not state the number of odd tricks or the denomination. The only correct form is the single word “Redouble”.
3. If a player, in redoubling, incorrectly states the doubled bid, or the number of odd tricks or the denomination, he is deemed to have redoubled the bid as it was made. (Law 16 — Unauthorized Information — may apply.)
C. Double or Redouble Superseded
Any double or redouble is superseded by a subsequent legal bid.
D. Scoring a Doubled or Redoubled Contract
If a doubled or redoubled bid is not followed by a subsequent legal bid, scoring values are increased as provided in Law 77.
Penalty — (See also ‘Rectification’) — penalties are of two kinds:
disciplinary — those applied for the maintenance of courtesy and good order (see Law 91), and
procedural — penalties (additional to any rectification) awarded in the Director’s discretion in cases of procedural irregularities (see Law 90).
LAW 7 - CONTROL OF BOARD AND CARDS
A. Placement of Board
When a board is to be played it is placed in the centre of the table until play is completed.
B. Removal of Cards from Board
1. Each player takes a hand from the pocket corresponding to his compass position.
2. Each player counts his cards face down to be sure he has exactly thirteen; after that, and before making a call, he must inspect the faces of his cards.
3. During play each player retains possession of his own cards, not permitting them to be mixed with those of any other player. No player shall touch any cards other than his own (but declarer may play dummy’s cards in accordance with Law 45) during or after play except by permission of the Director.
C. Returning Cards to Board
After play has finished, each player should shuffle his original thirteen cards, after which he restores them to the pocket corresponding to his compass position. Thereafter no hand shall be removed from the board unless a member of each side, or the Director, is present.
D. Responsibility for Procedures
Any contestant remaining at a table throughout a session is primarily responsible for maintaining proper conditions of play at the table.
Contract — the undertaking by declarer’s side to win, at the denomination named, the number of odd tricks specified in the final bid, whether undoubled, doubled or redoubled. (See Law 22)
LAW 6 -THE SHUFFLE AND DEAL
A. The Shuffle
Before play starts, each pack is thoroughly shuffled. There is a cut if either opponent so requests.
B. The Deal
The cards must be dealt face down, one card at a time, into four hands of thirteen cards each; each hand is then placed face down in one of the four pockets of the board. The recommended procedure is that the cards be dealt in rotation, clockwise.
C. Representation of Both Pairs
A member of each side should be present during the shuffle and deal unless the Director instructs otherwise.
D. New Shuffle and Re-deal
1. If it is ascertained before the auction first begins on a board that the cards have been incorrectly dealt or that during the shuffle and deal a player could have seen the face of a card belonging to another player there shall be a new shuffle and deal. Thereafter Law 16C applies to the accidental sighting of a card belonging to another player’s hand before completion of the play of the board (but see Law 24). Any illegally dealt board is a fouled board, and for any other irregularity see the relevant Law.
2. Unless the purpose of the tournament is the replay of past deals no result may stand if the cards are dealt without shuffle from a sorted deck* or if the deal has been imported from a different session. (These provisions shall not prevent arrangements, where desired, for exchange of boards between tables.)
3. Subject to Law 22A, there must be a new shuffle and a redeal when required by the Director for any reason compatible with the Laws (but see Law 86C).
E. Director’s Option on Shuffling and Dealing
1. The Director may instruct that the shuffle and deal be performed at each table immediately before play starts.
2. The Director may himself perform the shuffle and deal in advance.
3. The Director may have his assistants or other appointed agents perform the shuffle and deal in advance.
4. The Director may require a different method of dealing or pre-dealing to produce the same wholly random expectations as from A and B above.
F. Duplication of Board
If required by the conditions of play, one or more exact copies of each original deal may be made under the Director’s instructions. When he so instructs there shall normally be no redeal of a board (although the Director has powers to order it).
* A ‘sorted deck’ is a pack of cards not randomized from its prior condition.
Partscore — 90 or fewer trick points scored on one deal.
LAW 5 - ASSIGNMENT OF SEATS
A. Initial Position
The Director assigns an initial position to each contestant (individual, pair or team) at the start of a session. Unless otherwise directed, the members of each pair or team may select seats among those assigned to them by mutual agreement. Having once selected a compass direction, a player may change it within a session only upon instruction or with permission of the Director.
B. Change of Direction or Table
Players change their initial compass direction or proceed to another table in accordance with the Director’s instructions. The Director is responsible for clear announcement of instructions; each player is responsible for moving when and as directed and for occupying the correct seat after each change.
Trick Points — points scored by declarer’s side for fulfilling the contract (see Law 77).
LAW 18 - BIDS
A. Proper Form
A bid designates a number of odd tricks (tricks in excess of six), from one to seven, and a denomination. (Pass, double and redouble are calls but not bids.)
B. To Supersede a Bid
A bid supersedes a previous bid if it designates either the same number of odd tricks in a higher-ranking denomination or a greater number of odd tricks in any denomination.
C. Sufficient Bid
A bid that supersedes the last preceding bid is a sufficient bid.
D. Insufficient Bid
A bid that fails to supersede the last preceding bid is an insufficient bid.
E. Rank of the Denominations
The rank of the denominations in descending order is: no trump, spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs.
F. Different Methods
Regulating Authorities may authorize different methods of making calls.
Passed out Hand - is scored as 0 (Zero) , not an average.
LAW 20 - REVIEW AND EXPLANATION OF CALLS
A. Call Not Clearly Recognized
A player may require clarification forthwith if he is in doubt what call has been made.
B. Review of Auction during Auction Period
During the auction period, a player is entitled to have all previous calls restated* when it is his turn to call, unless he is required by law to pass. Alerts should be included when responding to the request. A player may not ask for a partial review of previous calls and may not halt the review before it is completed.
C. Review after Final Pass
1. After the final pass either defender has the right to ask if it is his opening lead (see Laws 47E and 41).
2. Declarer** or either defender may, at his first turn to play, require all previous calls to be restated*. (See Laws 41B and 41C). As in B the player may not ask for only a partial restatement or halt the review.
D. Who May Review the Auction
A request to have calls restated* shall be responded to only by an opponent.
E. Correction of Error in Review
All players, including dummy or a player required by law to pass, are responsible for prompt correction of errors in restatement* (see Law 12C1 when an uncorrected review causes damage).
F. Explanation of Calls
1. During the auction and before the final pass, any player may request, but only at his own turn to call, an explanation of the opponents’ prior auction. He is entitled to know about calls actually made, about relevant alternative calls available that were not made, and about relevant inferences from the choice of action where these are matters of partnership understanding. Except on the instruction of the Director replies should be given by the partner of the player who made the call in question. The partner of a player who asks a question may not ask a supplementary question until his turn to call or play. Law 16 may apply and the Regulating Authority may establish regulations for written explanations.
2. After the final pass and throughout the play period, either defender at his own turn to play may request an explanation of the opposing auction. At his turn to play from his hand or from dummy declarer may request an explanation of a defender’s call or card play understandings. Explanations should be given on a like basis to 1 and by the partner of the player whose action is explained.
3. Under 1 and 2 above a player may ask concerning a single call but Law 16B1 may apply.
4. If a player subsequently realizes that his own explanation was erroneous or incomplete he must call the Director immediately. The Director applies Law 21B or Law 40B4.
5. (a) A player whose partner has given a mistaken explanation may not correct the error during the auction, nor may he indicate in any manner that a mistake has been made. ‘Mistaken explanation’ here includes failure to alert or announce as regulations require or an alert (or an announcement) that regulations do not require.
(b) The player must call the Director and inform his opponents that, in his opinion, his partner’s explanation was erroneous (see Law 75) but only at his first legal opportunity, which is
(i) for a defender, at the end of the play.
(ii) for declarer or dummy, after the final pass of the auction.
6. If the Director judges that a player has based an action on misinformation given to him by an opponent see, as appropriate, Law 21 or Law 47E.
G. Incorrect Procedure
1. It is improper to ask a question solely for partner’s benefit.
2. Except as the Regulating Authority allows a player may not consult his own system card and notes during the auction and play periods, but see Law 40B2(b).
* When the calls are not spoken responders must ensure that it is clear to an enquiring opponent what calls have been made.
** Declarer’s first turn to play is from dummy unless accepting an opening lead out of turn.
Definition :- Partscore — 90 or fewer trick points scored on one deal.
LAW 12 - DIRECTOR’S DISCRETIONARY POWERS
A. Power to Award an Adjusted Score
On the application of a player within the period established under Law 92B or on his own initiative the Director may award an adjusted score when these Laws empower him to do so (in team play see Law 86). This includes:
1. The Director may award an adjusted score when he judges that these Laws do not provide indemnity to a non-offending contestant for the particular type of violation committed by an opponent.
2. The Director awards an artificial adjusted score if no rectification can be made that will permit normal play of the board (see C2 below).
3. The Director may award an adjusted score if there has been an incorrect rectification of an irregularity.
B. Objectives of Score Adjustment
1. The objective of score adjustment is to redress damage to a non-offending side and to take away any advantage gained by an offending side through its infraction. Damage exists when, because of an infraction, an innocent side obtains a table result less favourable than would have been the expectation had the infraction not occurred – but see C1(b).
2. The Director may not award an adjusted score on the ground that the rectification provided in these Laws is either unduly severe or advantageous to either side.
C. Awarding an Adjusted Score
1. (a) When after an irregularity the Director is empowered by these laws to adjust a score and is able to award an assigned adjusted score, he does so. Such a score replaces the score obtained in play.
(b) If, subsequent to the irregularity, the non-offending side has contributed to its own damage by a serious error (unrelated to the infraction) or by wild or gambling action it does not receive relief in the adjustment for such part of the damage as is self-inflicted. The offending side should be awarded the score that it would have been allotted as the consequence of its infraction only.
(c) In order to do equity, and unless the Regulating Authority forbids it, an assigned adjusted score may be weighted to reflect the probabilities of a number of potential results.
(d) If the possibilities are numerous or not obvious, the Director may award an artificial adjusted score.
(e) In its discretion the Regulating Authority may apply all or part of the following procedure in place of (c):
(i) The score assigned in place of the actual score for a non-offending side is the most favourable result that was likely had the irregularity not occurred.
(ii) For an offending side the score assigned is the most unfavourable result that was at all probable.
(f) The scores awarded to the two sides need not balance.
2. (a) When owing to an irregularity no result can be obtained [and see C1(d)] the Director awards an artificial adjusted score according to responsibility for the irregularity: average minus (at most 40% of the available matchpoints in pairs) to a contestant directly at fault, average (50% in pairs) to a contestant only partly at fault, and average plus (at least 60% in pairs) to a contestant in no way at fault.
(b) When the Director awards an artificial adjusted score of average plus or minus at international match points that score is normally plus or minus 3 imps, but this may be varied as Law 86A allows.
(c) The foregoing is modified for a non-offending contestant that obtains a session score exceeding 60% of the available matchpoints or for an offending contestant that obtains a session score that is less than 40% of the available matchpoints (or the equivalent in imps). Such contestants are awarded the percentage obtained (or the equivalent in imps) on the other boards of that session.
3. In individual events the Director enforces the rectifications in these Laws, and the provisions requiring the award of adjusted scores, equally against both members of the offending side even though only one of them may be responsible for the irregularity. But the Director shall not award a procedural penalty against the offender’s partner if of the opinion that he is in no way to blame.
4. When the Director awards non-balancing adjusted scores in knockout play, each contestant’s score on the board is calculated separately and the average of them is assigned to each.
Definition - Game: 100 or more trick points scored on one deal.
Law 2: The duplicate Boards.
A duplicate board containing a pack is provided for each deal to be played during a session. Each board is numbered and has four pockets to hold the four hands, deginated North, East, South & West. The dealer and vulnerability are designated as follows.
Dealer Boards Vulnerability Boards
North 1 5 9 13 Nill All 1 8 11 14
East 2 6 10 14 N/S 2 5 12 15
South 3 7 11 15 E/W 3 6 9 16
West 4 8 12 16 Both 4 7 10 13
The same sequence is repeated for each subsequent group of 16 boards.
No board that fails to conform to these should be used. If such a board is used, however, the conditions marked on it apply for that session.