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Opening Bid of 1NT
The Opening Bid of One Notrump (Transfers)
The one Notrump opening shows a balanced hand with 12 to 14 points.

Traditional responses:
At the two level responses are 2C (Stayman); 2D, 2H and 2S (weak takeouts into a 5+ card suit); 2NT invitational (good 11 to 12 points, usually no 4 card major).

The three level responses in a suit are all forcing and 3NT is to play.

These responses are reasonable but are they efficient?

What do you respond with this hand after partner opens 1NT?

   AJ4            System says to jump to 3H to show game values and exactly 5 cards
   KQ1062    in the suit. So partner raises with 3 or 4 card support or bids 3NT.
   75               So no problems there.
   K84    

What do you respond with this hand after partner opens 1NT?

   A64            You are a bit too strong for a weak takeout, but not strong enough for
   KQ1062    a game forcing bid. You could ignore the 5th heart and raise to 2NT.
   75               Do you remember how to show an invitational hand with a 5+ card
   Q84            major? Not many do. Start with Stayman and over 2D or 2S bid 3H.
                         Trouble usually happens when opener has 2 hearts and minimum!
    
Using transfers makes these hands easy.

Start with 2D, which opener has to convert to 2H, and then bid 3NT on the first hand and 2NT on the second. You are showing game values with 5 hearts on the first hand and invitational values with 5 hearts on the second.

Opener will convert 3NT back to 4H when holding 3 or 4 in the first sequence.

There are more options after 2NT:
bid 3H or 4H with minimum or maximum values and support;
pass or bid 3NT with minimum or maximum and lacking support.

There are other advantages to playing transfers: the NT bidder becomes declarer and the opening lead comes round to his possible tenaces (AQ, KJ10, etc); extra bidding space is created to allow improved definition; other bids are released to deal with awkward hand types.

A simple scheme would look like this:

The Transfer Response of Two Diamonds (which shows 5 or more hearts)
Having shown a hand containing long hearts your second bid helps to clarify the strength and distribution.
1NT - 2D     
2H   -   ?

    1.    Pass    = 0 to 10 points with no interest in going on.
 
    2.    2NT    = 11 or 12 points with 5 hearts and 3-3-2 distribution in the
             other suits. Invitational.
   
    3.    2S, 3C or 3D     = 11 or more points with 5 hearts and at least 4 cards in the
            suit bid. These bids are forcing to game.
   
    4.    3H    = 10 to 12 points with 6 or more hearts. Invitational.
   
    5.    3NT    = 13 to 17 points with 5-3-3-2 distribution (like 2NT but
                stronger)
   
    6.    4H    = 13 to 17 points with a 6 card suit (may have less points if
             distributionally stronger).
   
The Transfer Response of Two Hearts (which shows 5 or more spades)
1NT       2H    The continuations are exactly the same in meaning as after the 2D response
2S        ?          except that responder has spades instead of hearts.

The Take-out into a Long Minor (a response of 2S)
1NT       2S    Responder will have 0 to 10 points with a 6 card or longer minor suit.
3C        ?        Opener is expected to bid 3C over which responder will pass if holding clubs
                          or convert to 3D if holding diamonds (opener must pass 3D).

The bids of 3C or 3D
Show 6 or more cards in the suit bid and 12 or more points.
They are forcing to game and are often a try for a slam.

The bids of 3H or 3S
Shows 6 or more cards in the suit bid, usually with 16+ points; with less points responder can begin with a transfer bid. It is always a try for a slam.

Transfers are efficient and, more important, they are fun!

Why not give them a try.