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Sectional November 10-12, 2017

Save the date for our next Sectional at the Hilton Doubletree in Williamsburg.  We will have pair games on the 10th and 11th at 10:00 and 2:30 and Bracketed Swiss teams on Sunday, November 12th at 10:00.   Contact Ron Alldaffer at ralldaffer@charter.net if you need a partner or call him at 757 613-9326.    We will have special newcomer 99 pair games Friday morning and afternoon and Saturday morning.  Saturday afternoon there will be a Stratified Pair game and you will be matched with another pair to form a team for the Board-a-Match.  You will have two chances to win.  Hope to see you there!  

 
Bridge Tips
 
 
  SAYC Opening Bids
   Standard SAYC opening bids are as follows:

     1NT - 15-17 HCPs, balanced hand (4333, 4432, 3352).
     1H/1S - 13+ distribution points, 5+ card major suit.
     1C/1D - 13+ distribution points, 3+ card minor suit.  With 3D and 3C,   open 1C.
     2NT    - 20 or 21 HCPs, balanced hand.
     2C       - Strong and artificial.  22+ HCPs or 8.5 quick tricks.
     2D/2H/2S - Weak and pre-emptive. 5 - 10 HCPs, 6-card suit
.
  Simple SAYC Bid Responses
   1NT - Partner opens promising 15-17 HCPs and a balanced hand (4333, 4432, 3352).  With a balanced hand:
             0 - 7 HCPs       Pass
             8 - 9 HCPs       Bid 2NT (invites Pd to bid game with 16/17 HCPs).
            10-14 HCPs      Bid 3NT

1H/1S - Partner opens promising a 5+card major and 13+ points.
             Over a 1H bid:
       Pass - Less than 6 support points.
       1S  -   at least 4 spades, 6+ points.  Tends to deny a heart fit.
       1NT-  6-10 points. Denies 4 spades and 3 hearts.   NOT forcing.
     2C/2D  11+ points promising at least 4 of the bid suit.
        2H -  3+ card heart support, 6-10 support points.
       2NT-  11-12 HCPs balanced hand with 2cd heart support.
        3H -  Limit raise.  10-12 support points with 4+ hearts.
       3NT-  13-15 HCPs balanced hand with 2cd heart support.
        4H -  5+hearts, a singleton or void, 0-9 HCPs.

1C/1D - Partner opens promising 13+ points but may have only a 3cd suit.
             Holding 3 diamonds and 3 clubs, open 1C.
            Over a 1C bid:
        Pass - less than 6 HCPS.
      1H/1S - Bid 4 cd majors UP THE LINE promising 4cd suit, 6+ HCPs.
      1NT or 1D - 6-10 HCPs, no 4cd majors.
        2NT -  11-12 HCPs balanced hand w/no 4cd majors.
          2C  -  5+ clubs, 6-10 HCPs.
          3C  -  5+ clubs, 11-12 HCPs.
       3NT  -  13-15 HCPs balanced hand w/no 4cd majors.

Note:  Once above sequences are agreed upon and fully understood by both partners, consider adding Stayman, Jacoby red suit transfers (RST), Blackwood and Gerber.  It is not necessary to use multiple conventions to play a solid game of bridge.  Don't add any convention that is not fully understood by both partners.

  
     
  Basic SAYC Rebids
     After the first bid, which often has a wide point range, it is the second bid that further describes the hand while painting a more complete picture of point count.  Remember that the opener has promised a 2nd bid to partner unless responder's bid was 1NT or simple suit support (6-9 points),  We can break down opener's rebid into 3 categories; the minimum hand, the medium strength hand and the reverse.

Minimum rebids show 13-15 points:
Ex.           Opener                   Responder
                    1S         -P-             1NT
                    2H*
*I have 5 spades, 4 hearts; which do you prefer?
                    1C        -P-              1H
                    2H*
*I have 3 or more clubs and 4 hearts.
                    1D        -P-              1H
                   1NT*
*Denies 4 spades, 4 hearts and shows a balanced hand.
                     1D       -P-              1S
                    1NT*
*Does not deny 4 hearts and does not require a stopper in unbid suits.
                     1S        -P-              1NT
                     2S*
*Rebid of first bid suit shows an extra card (6 in H/S, 5 in C/D.)
Note: Responder may pass opener's 2nd suit if it fits better and total points are short of game.  A return to opener's first suit is merely suit preference.

Medium Strength - These rebids by opener are invitational and promise 16-18 points.
Ex.             Opener                    Responder
                     1S         -P-               1NT
                     3S*
*Promises 6+ and asks responder to bid again with 8+ points.
                     1H        -P-                1S
                     3S*
*Promises 4 spades and asks responder to bid again with 8-9 points.
                     1D        -P-                1S
                    2NT**
**Promises exactly 18 or 19 points w/stoppers in unbid suits.
                     1D        -P-                1S
                     4S*
*Promises 19/20 points and 4 spades.

Forcing Rebids - Show 18+ points and require partner to bid again.
Ex.              Opener                     Responder
                       1H      -P-                1S
                       3D*
*Promises 5+ hearts, 4+ diamonds and 19+ distributional points.
                       1D      -P-                1S
                       2H*
*This is a reverse promising 5+ diamonds, 4+ hearts  and 17+ points.  Forcing!

Note: 
A reverse bid is strong and forcing.  It is a second bid suit that is higher ranked than the first suit and also shows less cards than the first suit.  Since it forces partner to a higher level to support the opening suit, it promises a big hand.

Responder's 2nd bid after Opener's rebid:
   1.  Another suit bid is forcing!  It shows more points than the first bid, especially if on a new level.
   2.  Delayed support of partner's suit is not forcing. (It is suit preference.)
   3.  Raise of partner's 2nd bid suit is invitational.
   4.  Rebid of responder's first suit promises an additional card but no additional points.  It is weak.

Final Note:  In a misfit, stop bidding as soon as possible.           

  Preemptive Bids
     All preempts promise a long suit and a relatively weak hand.  The logic here is that the opponents very likely hold the best cards and can probably make game or slam.  Therefore, opening the bidding at a high level may make it more difficult for them to reach an ideal contract.  Preempts begin at the 2 level (Weak 2) and can extend to the 4 level.  The common features are:
     a.  HCP range is 5 to 10.
     b.  These are essentially sacrifice bids; the preemptor expects to be set. 
     c.  The rule of thumb on these bids is that the preemptor will be set no more than 3 tricks not vulnerable or 2 tricks vulnerable.
     d.  2 level preempts promise a 6 card suit.
     e.  3 level promises a 7 card suit.
     f.  4 level promises an 8 card suit.

Responses:
     a.  With a weak hand and 3 card trump support, raise 1 level.
     b.  With a weak hand and 4 card trump support, raise 2 levels.
     c.  With 17+ points and at least 2 card trump support, investigate for game (or bid game if partner's suit is known to be good.)
     d.  You might also agree to use a 2NT response to ask partner for a feature, an outside ace or king, in the event that you may want to play the contract at 3NT if partner has an entry to dummy.  If preemptor has that entry, that suit is bid at the 3 level; if not, the long suit is rebid at the 3 level.
     It is generally a bad idea for the responder to bid a different suit (don't preempt a preempt).  If/when this comes up, partners must agree whether this is forcing or not and mark their convention card accordingly.
  Cue Bids
     Since this topic is included in the "Tips" section, it will be general and not specific in nature.  The main point to be made here is that Cue Bids, any and all, are not alertable.

     Lots of bids fall into the cue bid category, and all depend upon partnership agreements.  If the two of you are not together here, you are in BIG trouble.  Simply stated, all cue bids are artificial and could mean:  (LHO - If in doubt, ask!)
     a) Stayman - Ex.   1NT - 2C - 3C (game force, 4cd major pd?).
     b) Limit Raise - Ex.  1H - 2D - 3D (4+ hearts, 10-12 points).
     c) Michaels -  Ex.  Opp  1D - 2D (5/5+ in majors). Cue bidder could be weak (7-12) or strong (16+).
     d) Western - Usually at the 3 level.  This asks partner to bid 3NT (final contract) if holding a stopper in the opponent's bid suit.  Ex.  1D-1S-2C-P-2H-2S-3S-P-3NT if yes, 4D, 4C or 4H if no.
     e) Control showing - Usually at the 5 level.  The suit bid promises 1st round control, either an Ace or a void.  Partner should bid the next suit up the line with 1st round control.  Skipping a suit indicates no 1st round control. Ex.  1S-P-2D-P-4S-P-5C (1st round control of clubs with a void - otherwise the bid would be 4NT).
    It should be evident that cue bids are very relevant if partner's understanding is clear.
    Finally, since all cue bids are artificial, they are all forcing for one round.  Partner must bid again.
    
  
  Defensive Bidding
     When either of your opponents has opened the bidding, consider yourself on the defensive.  You have 3 options available, overcall, double for takeout and pass.
     
There are 3 basic reasons for making an interfering bid:
        a.  compete for the contract.
        b.  disrupt opponent's bidding.
        c.  provide a lead-directing suit for your partner.

1.  Overcalls.  These bids are based primarily on shape, not points.  At the 1 level, 7-17 HCPs will usually suffice.  Overcalls should promise a GOOD 5+cd suit, i.e., a lead-directing bid.  If you have something good to say, say it at your first opportunity!

Opponent opens 1H.   You:    AQJ76 K2 9865 84      Bid 1S.
                                          KQT64 43 A72 543     Bid 1S.
                                          863 94 KQ2 AKJ32     Bid 2C.

2.  Takeout Doubles.  These bids are made at your first opportunity; partner has either passed or not yet bid.  2 kinds of hands apply:
       a.  About 12/13 distribution points, no more than 2 cards in opener's suit and at least 3 cards in the other 3 suits (emphasis on the majors).
       b.  17+point hand and a strong suit of your own.

Opponent opens 1D.   You:    A965 AT43 6 Q873    Bid. Double.
                                          A965 KQJ 6 Q8542    Bid. Double.
                                          A98 A872 K74 AQ2   Bid. 1NT.
                                          AKQ76 4 AQ62 Q97  Bid. Double, then bid 2S.

Advancer: This takeout double is a FORCING BID.  If RHO passes:
                  0 - 8 HCPs  Bid your best (longest) suit at the lowest possible level.
                  9-11 HCPs  Jump one level in your best suit.

3. Pass.   3rd option and the best bid if you don't have a good 5-cd suit, if you have length or strength in the opponent's suit 
or if you don't have the shape for a TO double. Give the opponents a little rope here; they might hang themselves.

Opponent opens 1S.      You:    AK32 75 K86 K876    Bid: Pass.
                                            AJ63 KQ76 5 K873    Bid: Pass.
                                            853 AKQJ 3 QT632    Bid: Pass.
                                            T42 Q9864 AK4 Q7    Bid: Pass.
                                             AKJ42 A3 43 Q742    Bid: Pass.

 
  Declarer Play Suggestions
No Trump Contracts

     Before you play to trick #1, count your sure winners.
     Give up necessary tricks (losers) to opponents early in the hand.
     Work on your longest suit (8 or more).
     Let opponents break new suits.
     Play honors in the short side first.
     Is there a danger opponent?  If so, play to keep them off lead.

Suit Contracts

     Count your losers.
     How many trumps do the opponents have? (If you have 8, they have 5 etc)
     Can you ruff any losers in the short hand before drawing trump?
     Can you sluff (discard) any losers before surrendering the lead?
     Consider the finesse.  There may well be better alternatives.
     Let opponents break new suits.



  How Suits Break
                                             
                 # of Missing Cards                       Likely Distribution
                          3                                                 2-1
                          4                                                 3-1
                          5                                                 3-2
                          6                                                 4-2
                          7                                                 4-3
                          8                                                 5-3
   Summary:  Even #'s break unevenly, odd #'s evenly - usually.




  Playing Computer Hands
    Here's the way I see computer hands and, while I can offer no guarantee that following my suggestions will work 100% of the time,  you might want to consider them in future type games:
   1.  I have recently commented to several of you that there is a synonym that can be fairly used to describe a Duplicate Bridge computer game---Down 1.  Many of the hands are totally tempting declarers to bid games and slams.  Before you take this plunge, think twice.  2 or 3 spades making 3 is infinitely better that 4 spades, off one.  Aggressive bidders will seldom reap big benefits; conservative is often the best way to go.
   2.  There are invariably more hands in these type games with 6,7,8-card suits, singletons, voids, etc.  Keep in mind when you get one of these monster hands that the opponents may well have lots/most of the key missing cards.
   3.  If you are the declarer, think of the worst that can happen and plan your play accordingly.  For example, if your side holds 8 or 9 cards of a particular suit, a 3-2 or 2-2 split may be expected, but a 4-1, 5-0 or 3-1, 4-0 is far more likely to be the case.  A safety play is often the best way to go.  If you need a successful finesse to make your contract, there is often a choice of which way to finesse.  Pick the way which keeps the danger hand from winning the trick.  Consider when it might be possible to end play an opponent so that the return lead will give you your contract.
   4.  Overtricks often are deciding factors in top boards in regular MP club games.  In general, go for the contract with computer hands; the sucker plays for the overtrick unless you can do it early in play without jeopardizing the game.
   5.  There will seldom be a lay down game or slam contract.  When things seem the rosiest, look for a skunk and you might just end up smelling like a rose.
  Suggested Defensive Strategies
                                            

GOOD OPENING LEADS;
Against NT:
     Top of a Sequence (QJTx, KQJxx)
     Lead partner's suit if one was bid. (Kx, Kxx)
    
Top of a broken sequence (KQTx, QJ9xx)
     4th highest card in your longest/strongest suit (K983)
Against Suit Contracts:
     Top of touching honors (AK63, KQ9)
     Top of a sequence (KQJ, JT9x)
     Lead partner's suit if one was bid. (Kx, Kxx)
     Top of an interior sequence (KJT9)
     A singleton (x) if able to ruff.
     Don't lead an ace unless it's a singleton or you also have the king. (Slam ok)
     Don't underlead an ace.
     Lead a trump if bidding suggests that declarer will be ruffing.
     Think BOSTON (bottom of something xxK, xxQ) (top of nothing Txx)
OTHER TIPS:
     Second hand generally plays LOW. (Cover an honor with an honor)
     Third hand generally plays HIGH.
     Lead/return partner's suit.
     Let opponents break new suits whenever possible.
SIGNALS:  (Watch each card played by your partner)
     Attitude:   High-Low encourages continuation.
                    Low-High discourages continuation.  (Low card asks for a suit shift)
     First Discard: (Pick your favorite from these 2)
     ODD-EVEN - play a 3579 of a suit you like, a 2468 of one you don't like.
     LAVINTHAL-Play a card in a suit you don't want led; a low card asks for the lowest ranking of the other two suits while a high card requests the higher ranking suit.


    
  Bridge Etiquette
~                                                                                  

     Bridge is an extremely enjoyable game. Courteous behavior is an exceptionally important part of that enjoyment. This guide serves as a brief reminder of how to behave at the bridge table.   We are sure that all players naturally follow this code of conduct but there are times when concentration and pressure can take their toll and it is for these situations that we issue this as a reminder.

~
~
~

1.                  Please refrain from cluttering the table with papers, notes, coffee, water, etc.

~

2.                  North hand keeps score, controls and handles the boards but may ask South to handle them. East-West should ask before handling boards

~

3.                  Fill out identical convention cards with your partner.

~

4.                  The only cards you may touch are your own.

~

5.                  Always count your cards before you look at them.

~

6.                  Don't touch or fondle the bidding box until you are ready to make your bid.

~

7.                  The only time you may ask an opponent what a bid means is when it is your turn to bid.

~

8.                  You must ask the partner of the bidder what a bid means.

~

9.                  If opponent opens with 2 or 3 of a suit, ask if it is pre-emptive.

~

10.              If your partner opens 1NT, announce the point range you are playing.

~

11.              If your partner makes a Jacoby Transfer bid, say “transfer”.

~

12.              Know when to alert your partner’s bid. (Note:  on the convention card, "alertable" bids are marked in red, "announceable" bids are marked in blue.)  (By the way, if you "alert" a bid, and the opponents do not request an explanation, DO NOT explain the bid.  Sometimes they may ask for the explanation at the end of the bidding.)

~

13.              You may not alert your own bid or remind your partner to alert your bid.

~

14.              If opponent asks you what your partner’s bid means, respond with expected minimum card and point totals.

~

15.              If you jump a level in the bidding, play the “Stop” card before your bid card.

~

16.              If you are to lead to the first trick, you should lead face down and ask the declarer "May I?"  This also assures that there is no lead out of turn!)

~

17.              If you are declarer, it is nice to thank your partner when she lays down her hand.

~

18.              A player may ask to see the last trick played only if he has not yet turned over his own card.

~

19.              When your partner fails to follow suit the first time ask, “no hearts, partner?” (or diamonds,etc.)

~

20.              Do not declare that you have all the last tricks unless you are on lead. Be sure you have pulled all the trumps.

~

21.              Be willing to play out the hand if opponents are not comfortable with your declaration of last tricks. 

~

22.              Do not discuss a board until after you have played all the boards on the table, and then only if there is time.

~

23.              If you discuss your boards, please keep your voices down. Players at the next table have not yet played these boards.

~

24.              Do not expose your individual score card to opponents. They may not have played those boards and should not inadvertently see the contracts played.

~

25.              Remember, bridge is a partnership game that requires excellent communication skills. Develop your ability to share information with your partner.

~

26.              Do not criticize your partner. If you make a mistake, just say, “sorry, partner”

~

27.              Learn from your mistakes and most important of all, HAVE FUN.

~

28.              Do not remove a card from your hand before it is your turn to play.

~

29.              Try and bid all hands with a consistent tempo. Avoid fast passes, doubles etc.

~





~~~~
Please call the director if you think you may have been affected by bad behavior. You will be helping others as well as yourselves

 
As in all games that are governed by rules and regulations, bad behavior will be penalized .....

If a player at the table behaves in an unacceptable manner, the director should be called immediately. Annoying behavior, embarrassing remarks or any other conduct which might interfere with the enjoyment of the game is specifically prohibited by Law 74A. Law 91A gives the director the authority to assess disciplinary penalties. This can include immediate disciplinary board penalties, and if a future violation is incurred at the same event, disqualification from future competition in that event. The guilty party or parties will be deemed not to have played in that event. No masterpoints will be awarded and no refunds received. Any further violations may result in a disciplinary hearing where the player(s) future participation in tournaments will be considered. A Best Behavior Report Form shall be available for players to report incidents which occur away from the table; and for directors to document complaints and action taken.

~
..... enjoy your game!

  MP VS IMP Strategies

                                                                                  

In standard pairs scoring (MPs), you score 1 point for every pair you beat and .5 for every pair you tie. If yours is the best score, it doesn't matter if you beat the others by 10 points or 200, you still score a "top."

An alternative is to use IMPs (International Match Point) scoring. This is the type of scoring used in all team matches and can be played in pairs games as well. With IMP scoring, it is the amount by which you beat the opposition which is significant.

Here are a couple of examples:

Board 1

NS

EW

Contract

by

NS

EW

1

2

3NT+1

N

430

 

3

4

4H=

S

420

 

5

6

4H=

S

420

 

In normal pairs scoring, pair 1 would get a top (2 points) and the others would receive .5 each.

At IMPs, this is a "flat" board. Everyone would score zero because the difference is only 10 points which is considered insignificant at IMPs.

 

Board 2

NS

EW

Contract

by

NS

EW

1

2

4H=

N

420

 

3

4

2H+2

S

170

 

5

6

2H+2

S

170

 

In pairs scoring, this board would score exactly the same as the first one - a top for pair 1 and tied bottom for everyone else. 

At IMPs, pair 1 beat both the others by 250 points which equates to an IMP score of 6.  Pair 1 therefore scores 12 and the others both -6.

IMP scoring therefore calls for slightly different tactics:

Pairs scoring

IMP scoring

Unless you fear an unstopped suit, or think you can make extra tricks by ruffing, it's better to play in No Trump than a suit contract. The extra 10 points could make the difference between a top and an average.

Always play in the safest contract. That usually means preferring, say, 4 Major to 3NT. The 10 point difference (assuming both are just making) is totally irrelevant.

Try to make as many overtricks as you can.

Overtricks aren't important. Never risk your contract for overtricks, no matter how likely they seem. If you make one overtrick, that may earn you 1 IMP. If you go off in a part score when everyone else is making, that will cost you in the region of 4 to 7 points (depending upon vulnerability etc.). Go off in a makeable game and you could be looking at a score of -13!

Be "trigger happy" with the doubles. If the opposition will probably go off, then double. It may even be worth doubling if you think they've found a game or slam which no one else will. If they are making, they get a top anyway so the double costs nothing.

Doubling a making contract can be expensive. For example, suppose they bid a non-vulnerable 4H and you double. If they go 1 off, the double buys you an extra 50 points, or 2 IMPs. If they make, the double has cost you 170 points or 5 IMPs. If they make overtricks, you had better resign yourself to the "also ran" list.

Generally, you stand to lose more than you stand to gain by doubling. A good rule of thumb is "only double if you have a trump stack and/or expect to set the contract at least two.”  Be particularly wary about doubling part scores.

Go for game, small or grand slam if you think it is more likely than not to succeed. Vulnerability makes no difference.

Go for "thin" games, particularly vulnerable.
If you bid a NVgame and the others don't and make it, you gain +6 IMPs; if it goes off you only lose 5.
Vulnerable, the scores are +10 if it makes and -6 if it goes one off.

The odds are roughly as follows:

Go for

If the odds are

Non vul. game

50% or better

Vul. game

40% or better

Small slam

At least 50%

Grand slam

At least 66% in your favour. If in doubt, settle for small slam.

  Basic ACOL Bidding System
                                                                                                       Basic ACOL

     While SAYC and 2/1 are the predominate favorite bidding systems among duplicate players in the United States, a far more popular system prevails in the UK and in many other European countries.  It is known simply as ACOL,  There is a BASIC version of ACOL which can be used very successfully, I think, in any ACBL competitive contest.  The basic ACOL system uses only three conventions; Stayman, Gerber and Blackwood.  While partnerships are free to add any of their favorite conventions, the basic ACOL system can be played without any alerts having to be made.   Simply announce the 1NT range and play on.  It is incumbent upon your opponents to ask questions or to read your completed convention card for necessary information.
      In a nutshell, Basic ACOL features:
       Opening 1NT with a balanced hand of 12-14 HCPs.
       Opening with a 4 card major.  In fact, all opening suit bids at the 1 level promise 4+ cards.
       All opening 2 bids are STRONG (every suit bid is forcing for one round).
       Pre-emptive opening bids at the 3 or 4 level.  (all 5-10 HCPs).
     There are obviously modified responses required to play ACOL vis-a-vis SAYC or 2/1.  Rather than outlining each category, I'll simply include the Basic ACOL crib sheets as an attachment in a follow-up group email,  Take a look and see if it appeals to you.  Be careful about trying to mix some ACOL concepts to your SAYC card.  This becomes tricky in a hurry.  Remember that the primary requirement for a successful partnership is not the particular system being used but the common understanding that exists between two people.  Use the one that works best for you and your partner.
 
  Two Over One Bidding System

   2 over 1 is a more sophisticated version of SAYC and is used by a large percentage of duplicate bridge players.  When partner opens a minor suit at the 1 level, the bidding is essentially identical to SAYC;  however, whenever that opening bid is 1 of a major, the response of a new suit at the 2 level requires an opening hand and is therefore forcing to game.  Conceptually, there is now no rush or fear of partner passing a bid that, in SAYC, would be non-forcing since the partnership cannot pass until a game level contract has been reached.  So:

1S – P – 2C       1H –P- 2D      1S –P- 2H   are all forcing-to-game bids.

   The 2/1 rule above leaves a number of hand types, nearly all invitational, that can no longer make a natural and forcing two level response.  Each of these type hands, having 6 to 12 points, has given rise to the Forcing 1NT response.  Forcing 1NT is an integral part of the 2/1 system and is forcing (announce) for 1 round.  So,  1H –P- 1NT and 1S-P-1NT are forcing; 1D –P-1NT and 1C-P-1NT are not.  Playing 2/1,  each of the following hand types must go through 1NT Forcing:

1S  P  1NT    - 94  2  AKJT972  QT6    Single Suited hands w/invitational values

1S  P  1NT   -  KT4  2  AQ976  JT93    Unbalanced 3-card Limit Raises

1S  P  1NT   -  KT  92  AQ975  QT83  Semi-balanced hands w/invitational values

  With hand #1, jump to or bid 3D after hearing partner’s response. (Invitational)

 With hand #2, jump to 3S to show delayed 3-card trump support.  (Invitational)

 With hand #3, you must decide whether to raise partner’s second suit or bid a slightly offshape 2NT.  Neither of these bids is forcing, merely invitational.


  Forcing 1NT

    In the 2/1 bidding system, a bid of 1NT in response to partner’s 1H or 1S opening is forcing (announce) for one round and typically shows 6 to 12 HCPs.  After hearing partner’s response, you will clarify the auction by making a sign off bid, inviting to game or occasionally bidding game.  The forcing 1NT is helpful on many hands where you have no convenient response to the major suit opening bid.

Partner opens 1S:

2  KJT8762  Q6  642     Bid 1NT and signoff by next bidding 2H.

52  3  943  KQJT954     Bid 1NT and signoff by next bidding 3C.

53  KJ62  T62  AKT3     Bid 1NT and then 2NT (Invitational).

KJ3  43  A543  KT92    Bid 1NT then jump to 3S (Invitational)

43  KJ3  K872  JT95     Bid 1NT; next bid, if any, depends on pd’s response.

   Most partnerships in the 2/1 system do not consider a 1NT response as forcing if the responder has previously passed.  In this case, it is deemed to be semi-forcing (announce),  meaning that opener may pass with a minimum hand (12 or 13 points).

                                                     Responding After Partner Bids Forcing  1NT

   The responses are pretty straightforward:.

With a minimum hand and a 4-card or longer minor, bid your minor.

With a 5-3-3-2 distribution, bid your 3-card minor.

With 3 cards in each minor, bid 2C.

With AQJ43  AT74  QT4  4, bid 2H.

With AT54  AQJ43  QT4  4, bid 2D.  (Rebidding hearts promises 6 and bidding 2S, a reverse, promises a stronger hand plus partner would have bid 1S with 4 or more and not 1NT).

With AT54  AQJ43  Q4  94, Bid 2C.  (Stuck for a bid here; 2C is the least of evils.)

                                                       Rebidding After Making a Forcing 1NT Bid

   The Forcing 1NT involves considerably more judgment than other conventions.  Basic, most common, hands are only covered here:

With  5  AQT987  532  653, signoff with 2H.  A new suit at the 2-level shows a 6-card suit and a weak hand.

With  87  AT93  J83  AQ65, Bid 2NT (Invitational).

With  Q3  Q54  KT97  A976 after pd has rebid 2S, promising 6, Bid 3S. Invitational.

With  KT5  84  KJ96  A643, jump to 3S.  Invitational.

   Raising partner’s minor suit response to the 3 level is invitational and should promise 5+ clubs, 4+ diamonds and 9-12 HCPs.  Ex

1S     P   1NT

2C    P   3C         95  A75  T73  KQ864  (Partner may have only 2 or 3 clubs).

1S   P   1NT

2D   P   3D       82  A764  KQ95  J76    (Partner may have only 3 diamonds).

    There are many excellent books in print describing the 2/1 and Forcing 1NT system bidding and rationale.  Perhaps there is enough here for you and partner to get your feet wet,  but additional study is highly recommended.